2019年6月CATTI二笔实务真题

英译汉第一篇:394字
节选自纽约时报What Role Do Teachers Play in Education?
原文链接:(What Role Do Teachers Play in Education? - The New York Times?
https://www.nytimes.com/2018/08/17/books/review/andrea-gabor-after-the-education-wars.html)

In 2009, Time magazine hailed an online math program piloted at three New York City public schools, as one of the year’s 50 best innovations. Each day, the software generated individualized math “playlists” for students who then chose the “modality” in which they wished to learn — software, a virtual teacher or a flesh-and-blood one. A different algorithm sorted teachers’ specialties and schedules to match a student’s needs. “It generates the lessons, the tests and it grades the tests,” one veteran instructor marveled.
2009年,《时代》杂志发文称赞三所纽约市公立学校试点推行的在线数学课程,称其是该年度的五十大杰出创新成果之一。该课程软件每天都会生成个性化的数学课“播放列表”,学生可根据想要学习的内容选择具体的“播放模式”。这款课程软件既是一位虚拟教师,也会呈现出一种有血有肉的真实形象。通过一种特别的算法,课程软件对所有教师的专业课程与排课时间进行分类,以满足每位学生的需求。一位资深讲师就曾惊叹称,“这款软件不仅能够生成课程与测试内容,还可对测试结果进行评分”。

Although the program made only modest improvements in students’ math scores and was adopted by only a handful of New York schools (not the 50 for which it was slated), it serves as a notable example of a pattern that Andrea Gabor charts in “After the Education Wars.” For more than three decades, an unlikely coalition of corporate philanthropists, educational technology entrepreneurs and public education bureaucrats has spearheaded a brand of school reform characterized by the overvaluing of technology and standardized testing and a devaluing of teachers and communities. The trend can be traced back to a hyperbolic 1983 report, “A Nation at Risk,” issued by President Ronald Reagan’s National Commission on Excellence in Education. Against the backdrop of an ascendant Japanese economy and consistent with President Reagan’s disdain for public education (and teachers’ unions), “A Nation at Risk” blamed America’s ineffectual schools for a “rising tide of mediocrity” that was diminishing America’s global role in a new high-tech world.
虽然该课程并未大幅提升学生的数学成绩,且仅有少数纽约学校采用(并非预期进驻的50所学校),但却是安德烈?!ぜ硬┒ˋndrea Gabor)在《教育战争》(After the Education Wars)中所提出的教改模式的一个典型范例。三十多年来,看似不可能达成统一战线的众多企业慈善家、教育技术企业家和公共教育官员率先掀起一股学校改革风潮,其特点就是极度重视技术及标准化测试,同时弱化对教师和社会的关注。这一风潮可以追溯到罗纳德·里根政府时期的“国家教育卓越委员会(National Commission on Excellence in Education)”于1983年发布的一份风格夸张的报告——《处于危险中的国家》(A Nation at Risk)。在日本经济崛起的背景下,里根总统曾对美国的公共教育(及教师工会)表现出蔑视之情,与此相呼应,《处于危险中的国家》也将美国“平庸之辈越来越多”归咎于美国学校的无能,认为这些庸才正不断削弱美国在高新科技领域的全球影响力。

Policymakers turned their focus to public education as a matter of national security, one too important (and potentially too profitable) to entrust to educators. The notion that top-down decisions by politicians, not teachers, should determine what children need was a thread running through the bipartisan 2001 No Child Left Behind Act, the Obama administration’s Race to the Top and state-initiated Common Core standards, and the current charter-driven agenda of Secretary of Education Betsy DeVos. “Accountability” became synonymous with standardized tests, resulting in a testing juggernaut with large profits going to commercial publishing giants like Pearson.
政策制定者随后将关注点转向公共教育领域。在政策制定者看来,公共教育已上升至国家安全的高度,其重要性(或高盈利性)完全无法让政策制定者将发展公共教育的任务放心交予教育部门。有种观点认为,决定儿童教育需求的应当是政治人物(而非教师群体)自上而下的政策决策,而从2001年美国两党支持通过的“有教无类法案(No Child Left Behind Act)”,到奥巴马政府的“力争上游(Race to the Top)”计划与州共同核心课程标准,再到现任美国教育部长贝琪·德沃斯(Betsy DeVos)推行的特许学校议程,这一观念始终贯穿其中?!霸鹑沃啤币殉晌曜蓟馐缘拇?,导致培生教育(Pearson)等教育测试领域的大体量、高利润机构转型成为商业出版巨头。

The education wars have been demoralizing for teachers, over 17 percent of whom drop out within their first five years. No one believes that teaching to the test is good pedagogy, but what are the options when students’ future educational choices, teachers’ salaries and retention and, in some states, the fate of entire schools rest on student test scores? In meticulous detail, Gabor documents reform’s institutional failings. She describes the turns in New York City’s testing-obsessed policies, the undermining of Michigan’s once fine public schools and the heartbreaking failure of New Orleans to remake its schools after Hurricane Katrina.
教育战争削弱了教师队伍的斗志,超过17%的教师在入职不到五年内离职。没有人相信应试教育是一种有效的教育方法,但当学生的继续教育选择、教师的薪资与留任,乃至美国某些州整所学校的前途命运都取决于学生的测试成绩时,他们还能有哪些选择?加博尔在其书中极其详尽地记述了教育改革的制度缺陷:纽约市教育测试狂热政策引发诸多转变;密歇根州公立学校的昔日优势遭到削弱;卡特里娜飓风肆虐过后,新奥尔良市在重建学校时也遭遇令人心碎的困境。

英译汉第二篇:404字
节选自联合国教科文组织官网,原文链接如下:(Angkor - UNESCO World Heritage Centre ?https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/668/)

Angkor is one of the most important archaeological sites in Southeast Asia. For several centuries, Angkor was the centre of the Khmer Kingdom. With impressive monuments, several different ancient urban plans and large water reservoirs, the site is a unique concentration of features testifying to an exceptional civilization. Temples, exemplars of Khmer architecture, are closely linked to their geographical context as well as being imbued with symbolic significance. The architecture and layout of the successive capitals bear witness to a high level of social order and ranking within the Khmer Empire. Angkor is therefore a major site exemplifying cultural, religious and symbolic values, as well as containing high architectural, archaeological and artistic significance.
吴哥是东南亚地区最重要的考古遗址之一。几个世纪以来,吴哥一直是高棉王国的都城。除了令人印象深刻的历史遗迹之外,当地还留有众多古城池与大型水库的遗址。如此之多的罕见遗?;慵谝淮?,这就是当地曾经存在过高度文明的象征。作为一种典型的高棉建筑,寺庙与当地的地理环境密切相关,具有标志性意义。历代都城的建筑与布局在很大程度上见证了高棉帝国的社会秩序与等级。因此,作为一处重要的历史遗迹,吴哥不仅具有丰富的建筑、考古和艺术内涵,还展现出较高的文化、宗教和象征价值。

The Angkor complex encompasses all major architectural buildings and hydrological engineering systems from the Khmer period. All the individual aspects illustrate the intactness of the site very much reflecting the splendor of the cities that once were. The site integrity however, is put under dual pressures: endogenous: exerted by more than 100,000 inhabitants distributed over 112 historic settlements scattered over the site, who constantly try to expand their dwelling areas; exogenous: related to the proximity of the town of Siem Reap, the seat of the province and a tourism hub.
吴哥建筑群囊括了高棉时期的所有重要建筑和水文工程系统,全方位展现了该地遗址的完整性,同时也反映出历代城池的辉煌历史。然而,遗址的完整性目前正面临着双重压力。其一是内生性压力:遗址区域零星散布着112个历史聚居点,居民人数超过10万,而他们正在想方设法扩大自身的居住区域;其二是外生性压力:当地与暹粒镇相邻,而暹粒镇正位于暹粒省首府,是一处旅游业中心。

Angkor is one of the largest archaeological sites in operation in the world. Tourism represents an enormous economic potential but it can also generate irreparable destructions of the tangible as well as intangible cultural heritage. Many research projects have been undertaken, since the international safeguarding program was first launched in 1993. The scientific objectives of the research (e.g. anthropological studies on socio-economic conditions) result in a better knowledge and understanding of the history of the site, and its inhabitants that constitute a rich exceptional legacy of the intangible heritage. The purpose is to associate the “intangible culture” to the enhancement of the monuments in order to sensitize the local population to the importance and necessity of its protection and preservation and assist in the development of the site as Angkor is a living heritage site where Khmer people in general, but especially the local population, are known to be particularly conservative with respect to ancestral traditions and where they adhere to a great number of archaic cultural practices that have disappeared elsewhere.
吴哥是全球最大的经营性考古遗址之一。旅游业代表着巨大的经济潜力,但同时也可能对物质和非物质文化遗产造成无法挽回的伤害。吴哥的国际?;ぜ苹鸩接?993年,多年来已开展众多研究项目??蒲У难芯磕勘辏ㄈ缟缁峋锰跫娜死嘌а芯浚┦沟萌嗣堑靡愿玫厝鲜队肓私馕飧缫胖返睦?,以及作为这些璀璨非物质文化遗产缔造者的吴哥当地居民。吴哥堪称历史文化的活化石,这里的高棉人(特别是当地居民)在先祖传统方面通常极为守旧,而他们所坚守的大量古老文化习俗在其他地方早已消失殆尽,因此,开展这些研究旨在将“非物质文化”与历史遗迹的?;ち灯鹄?,使当地居民意识到吴哥遗迹?;さ闹匾院捅匾?,从而为当地遗址的开发工作提供协助。

Moreover, the Angkor Archaeological Park is very rich in medicinal plants, used by the local population for treatment of diseases. The Preah Khan temple is considered to have been a university of medicine and the NeakPoan an ancient hospital.
此外,吴哥考古公园(Angkor Archaeological Park)内还生长着种类丰富的药用植物,当地居民用它们治疗多种疾病。圣剑寺(Preah Khan)据信过去曾是一所医药学府,而尼克潘(NeakPoan)则被认为是一家古老的医院。

汉译英第一篇:337字
节选自《“十三五”国家老龄事业发展和养老体系建设规划》,原文链接:http://www.gov.cn/zhengce/content/2017-03/06/content_5173930.htm

预计到2020年,全国60岁以上老年人口将增加到2.55亿人左右,占总人口比重提升到17.8%左右;高龄老年人将增加到2900万人左右,独居老人将增加到1.18亿人左右。涉老法规政策系统性、协调性、针对性、可操作性有待增强;城乡区域老龄事业发展和养老体系建设不均衡问题突出;养老服务有效供给不足,质量效益不高,人才队伍短缺。
China is expected to see an increase in the number of elderly people aged over 60 years to around 255 million by 2020, raising its percentage of the total population to about 17.8%; the older population will rise to about 29 million, and the number of seniors living alone will jump to about 118 million. The regulations and policies relating to the elderly people need to be more systematic, coordinated, relevant and feasible; the development of undertakings for the aged and the construction of old-age service systems in urban and rural areas experience prominent imbalance; the elderly care service is plagued by the shortage of effective supply, low quality and effectiveness, and manpower shortage.

规划提出目标,到2020年,老龄事业发展整体水平明显提升,养老体系更加健全完善。社会保险、社会福利、社会救助等社会保障制度和公益慈善事业有效衔接,老年人的基本生活、基本医疗、基本照护等需求得到切实保障。老龄事业发展和养老体系建设的法治化、信息化、标准化、规范化程度明显提高。市场活力和社会创造力得到充分激发,养老服务和产品供给主体更加多元、内容更加丰富、质量更加优良,以信用为核心的新型市场监管机制建立完善。老年人合法权益得到有效?;?,老年人参与社会发展的条件持续改善。
The goal is laid out in the Plan that by 2020 overall development level of the aging cause will see a significant enhancement, and the old-age service systems will become improved and perfected. Social security systems such as social insurance, social welfare, and social assistance are effectively linked to charitable causes to effectively guarantee the needs of the elderly people for basic livelihood, basic medical care, and basic care. The development of aging cause and construction of old-age service systems demonstrate obvious improvement in legalization, informationization, standardization and normalization. Market vitality and social creativity have been fully stimulated. The services and products for elderly people have more diversified suppliers, more abundant content, and better quality. A credit-centered new market regulatory mechanism has been well-established. The elderly people have received solid protection on their legitimate rights and interests, and have been provided with continuously improved conditions for them to be part of social development.

汉译英 passage 2

(原文、译文改编自《英语世界》2019.05月刊)
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中国的改革发端于农村,目的在于调节农民和土地之间的关系。1978年之前,数亿中国人还在为温饱问题发愁,如今,经过40年的发展,中国有7亿多农村贫困人口实现脱贫。从1978年至1985年,农村经济体制的深刻变革,为农村经济的增长和贫困人口的大幅减少提供了强劲动力。按当时标准,有50%未解决温饱的农村人口在这期间解决了温饱问题。按现在的扶贫标准,有超过1亿农村人口在这期间摆脱了贫困。这不仅为全面建设小康社会打下了坚实的基础,而且为全人类的扶贫和发展做出了巨大贡献。
China’s reform originated in rural areas with the purpose of adjusting the relationship between farmers and land. Before 1978, hundreds of millions of Chinese people were struggling to meet their basic daily needs. After 40 years of development, more than 700 million people in rural areas of China were lifted out of poverty. From 1978 to 1985, the profound reform of China’s rural economic system provided a strong impetus for economic growth and a dramatic reduction of the poverty-stricken population. According to the standards at that time, 50 percent of the rural population in poverty met their basic needs during this period. And even according to the poverty alleviation standards at present, more than 100 million rural people were lifted out of poverty during the period. This not only laid a solid foundation for China to build a moderately prosperous society in all respects but also made great contributions to poverty alleviation and development for all mankind.
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1978年,安徽凤阳县小岗村的18户农民走出了中国农村改革的第一步。破除了计划经济体制的诸多束缚,实行以家庭联产承包责任制为基础的家庭经营,获得了可以自由耕种的承包土地,极大调动了生产积极性,使他们以巨大的热情投入到农业生产之中。
In 1978, farmers from 18 households in Xiaogang Village of Fengyang County, Anhui Province took the first step of China’s rural reform. By removing many constraints of the planned economic system and conducting family management based on the household responsibility system, farmers received contracted land they could freely decide what to grow, which greatly stimulated their enthusiasm for agricultural production.

2019年6月CATTI三笔真题·实务


英译汉 passage 1

题源:这一篇摘选自世界卫生组织官网上世卫组织总干事特德罗斯·阿达诺姆博士(Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus)的一篇演讲The right to health
原文链接:https://www.who.int/dg/speeches/2018/right-to-health/en/

Both WHO’s constitution and the Universal Declaration of Human Right assert that health is a human right, not a privilege for those who can afford it. Over time, that right has made its way into both national and international law. But importantly, the right to health is not simply a noble idea on a piece of paper.
世界卫生组织《组织法》与《世界人权宣言》(Universal Declaration of Human Right)均强调健康是一项人权,而不是那些有经济实力者享有的特权。随着时间的推移,健康权已逐渐载入各国法律和国际法律。但重要的是,健康权绝非只是纸上空谈。

It has been a platform for major improvements in global health. Since 1948, life expectancy has increased by 25 years. Maternal and childhood mortality have plummeted. Smallpox has been eradicated and polio is on the brink. We have turned the tide on the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Deaths from malaria have dropped dramatically. New vaccines have made once-feared diseases easily preventable. And there are many other causes for celebration. But even as we continue to struggle with old threats, new ones have arisen. Climate change will have profound effects on health. Antimicrobial resistance has the potential to undo the gains of modern medicine. Vaccine hesitancy is putting millions of young lives at risk. Noncommunicable diseases, including heart disease, stroke, cancer diabetes, hypertension, lung diseases and mental illnesses have become the major killers of our time. And of course, we continue to face the ever-present threat of outbreaks and other health emergencies.
健康权一直是全球健康状况得以获得重大改善的平台。自1948年以来,预期寿命延长了25岁。产妇和儿童死亡率快速下跌。天花已被消灭,脊髓灰质炎也已处在被消灭的边缘。艾滋病毒/艾滋病的势头得到扭转。疟疾致死的现象急剧减少。得益于新疫苗的出现,曾经让人谈虎色变的疾病也变得易于预防?;褂衅渌娇上部珊?。但是,就在我们继续对抗既有健康威胁之时,新的健康威胁已经出现。气候变化会对健康产生深远影响??刮⑸镆┪锬鸵┬杂锌赡苋孟执窖〉玫某晒慈晃薮??!耙呙缬淘ァ闭<笆偻蚰昵崛说纳?。心脏病、中风、癌症、糖尿病、高血压、肺病和精神疾病等非传染性疾病已成为当今时代的头号杀手。当然,我们还无时不刻不在面临着疫情和其他突发卫生事件的威胁。

In the past 12 months, WHO has responded to 47 emergencies in 50 countries. We are currently responding to an outbreak of Ebola in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, very near the border with Uganda. As of today, there have been 373 cases and 216 deaths since the outbreak started in August. So far, we have managed to prevent Ebola from spreading across the border, largely because we have much better tools with which to fight Ebola than at any time in history. More than 32,000 people have been vaccinated, which is one of the reasons the outbreak has not spread further than it has. We also have ways to treat those infected. So far, 150 people have been treated with one of four drugs. 14 million travelers have been screened, there have been more than 190 safe and dignified burials, we have done door-to-door advocacy in almost 4000 households and we have trained more than 500 community leaders. But this outbreak has been much more difficult to control, largely because of the security situation in eastern DRC. Armed groups operating in the area conduct regular attacks on the city of Beni, the epicentre of the outbreak. And every time there is an attack, the virus gets an advantage. Vaccination and contact tracing are disrupted.
在过去的12个月内,世卫组织应对了50个国家47起突发事件。我们目前正在处理邻近乌干达边境的刚果民主共和国爆发的埃博拉疫情。自8月爆发以来,迄今已有373例病例和216例死亡。到目前为止,我们已成功阻止埃博拉病毒蔓延越过边境,这主要因为我们采用了有史以来最好的几种手段对抗埃博拉病毒。超过3.2万人接种了疫苗,这是疫情没有进一步扩散的原因之一。此外,我们也有治疗感染者的方法。到目前为止,已有150人接受了四种药物中的一种治疗。1400万游客经过筛查;超过190人得到安全、体面埋葬;挨家挨户宣传达到近4000户;500多名社区领导接受了培训。但此次疫情控制难度加大,这主要归咎于刚果民主共和国东部的安全局势。在该地区作战的武装分子频繁袭击疫情中心贝尼市(Beni),而每次袭击都为病毒创造了有利条件,中断了疫苗接种和接触者追踪工作。

Health security and health systems are two sides of the same coin. The best long-term investment in protecting and promoting the right to health is to invest in stronger health systems. Because there is simply no other way to achieve universal health coverage and the Sustainable Development Goals than primary health care, with a focus on health promotion and disease prevention. But it will also require WHO and the global health community to work in a much more integrated and coherent way. That’s why WHO and 10 other international health agencies have agreed to work together on a Global Action Plan for Healthy Lives and Well-Being. The plan has three strategic approaches: integrate, accelerate and account. First, we have committed to integrate many of our processes to increase our collective efficiency. Second, we have committed to accelerate progress by identifying areas of work in which we can truly bend the curve and make more rapid progress towards the health-related SDGs – like research and development, data and sustainable financing. And third, we have committed to keep each other accountable, both to the people we serve, and to the donors and partners who expect results from the resources they give us.
卫生安全和医疗卫生体系是同一事物的两个方面。?;ず痛俳】等ǖ淖罴殉て谕蹲史绞绞峭蹲矢看蟮囊搅莆郎逑?。初级卫生保健以促进健康和预防疾病为重点,而除了初级卫生保健,根本没有其他方法可以实现全民健康覆盖与可持续发展目标(Sustainable Development Goals)。但这还需要世卫组织与全球卫生界加强协调合作。这就是世卫组织与其他10个国际卫生机构同意共同推行“全球健康生活与福祉行动计划”(Global Action Plan for Healthy Lives and Well-Being)的原因。这项计划有三大战略方法:整合流程、加快进程与承担责任。首先,我们已承诺整合诸多流程,提高集体效率。其次,我们已承诺,通过确定能够真正扭转局势的工作领域(如研发、数据和可持续融资领域),加速实现与健康相关的可持续发展目标,从而加快进程。最后,我们已承诺人人承担责任,不仅对所服务的对象负责,也要对出资出力、期待其有所成效的捐助者与合作者负责。

汉译英 passage 1
题源:中国网《中国访谈》栏目对360企业安全集团董事长齐向东的专访
原文链接:http://fangtan.china.com.cn/2018-09/18/content_63574694.htm

互联网在中国改革开放中的重要作用怎么说都不为过。从2000年开始,中国互联网应用的普及,到现在快20年的时间。尤其是在最后的这15年,互联网为保持高速发展起到了决定性的作用。经济发展有两个东西是至关重要的:第一就是提高生产效率,提升产品质量,生产出更有创意的设计;第二就是保持渠畅通,使工厂生产的东西以最快的速度、最低的成本送到消费者的手里?;チ谡饬礁龌方诙嘉泄牟捣⒄蛊鸬搅司龆ㄐ缘淖饔?。
The importance of the Internet in China’s reform and opening up cannot be overstated. The year of 2000 marks the beginning of nearly two decades’ popularity the Internet has enjoyed in China. Especially over the last 15 years, the Internet has played a decisive role in sustaining rapid development of the country. Economic development is enabled, crucially, by two factors: first, the improvement of production efficiency with higher product quality and more creative designs, and second, open channels through which factory products can be delivered to customers at the fastest speed and lowest cost. That is how the Internet decisively accounts for China’s industrial development.

互联网的发展在设计理念和设计人才方面极大的缩小了我们与国际先进的国家的差距。通过互联网,我们可以通过互联网以更快的速度获取全球最先进的设计技术和理念。更重要的是通过互联网可以产生更多的效应。这就极大地加快了经济发展的速度。
The development of the Internet has significantly narrowed our gap with advanced countries in design concepts and design talents. We are offered a faster access to the world’s state-of-the-art design techniques and concepts by the Internet. More importantly, the Internet can bring about more effects. This has greatly accelerated economic development.

在渠道的领域,互联网的效果更加明显,比如电商。老百姓通过互联网更容易表达他自己的意愿,更容易对我们现有的一些产品提出一些批评性的意见,而这些也都更好地推动企业的生产,推动政府职能的现代化。首先,是城市人和农村人在获取信息和沟通信息上平等,大家都可以通过互联网实时看到中国的发展和中国城市的发展?;チ碳ぐ傩漳鼻竺篮蒙畹囊庠?,并且将意愿化为前行的强大动力。
As for channels, the Internet has an even more evident effect, for example, on e-commerce. It has made it easier for ordinary people to express their own will, and share critical comments on some of our existing products, which will facilitate the production of enterprises and the modernization of government functions. Firstly, people in urban and rural areas, by going online, are equal in accessing and communicating information, which allows all of them to see the development of China and Chinese cities in real time. The Internet then stimulates the aspirations of common people to seek a better life, and turns their aspirations into a powerful driving force for development.